Common to all:
There are two ways to run a script, one by invoking the interpreter on the command line, and the other is to run it as a normal executable.
To mark a file as executable, use this command:
To run a script, run it like a normal program, if the script isn't in your $PATH variable, specify the path.
The packages to be install, an example program, and the running of it are given here.
You don't need to install anything.
You will need to install the php-cli package.
sudo aptitude install php5-cli
Python is already installed.
sudo aptitude install ruby
Tcl is installed.
Note: ECMAScript isn't normally used this way.
You will need to install spidermonkey, which is the ECMAScript interpreter used by Firefox.
sudo aptitude install spidermonkey-bin
Obviously, you have a shell installed.
# Save as "hw.sh"
echo "Hello world"
Surprise! C is normally compiled, see FAQ: Compiling your first C or C++ programs if you want to learn how to use C. There is a very good C interpreter which you can use. It is also a compiler, and may be better than gcc in some cases.
You will need to install Tiny C Compiler (tcc), use:
sudo aptitude install tcc